5.3.04 Erling Skaar
Here follows a story of how matter may have been created in the beginning. The main goal is to introduce an explanation model which we call the EM-model (ElectroMagnetic model). A main assumption in this model is that everything in nature can be explained as electric and magnetic forces between charges.
Before matter could be created the Creator had to create a place to put it. Therefore we assume that he started with a three dimensional space which we call the universe.
Then we assume that he created the small particles that we call electrons. He gave these particles something called charge that makes forces in between them. Because all particles had the same charge, they where all pushing each other away and ended up as far away from each other as possible .
He then created the same number of new particle with opposite charge and placed them in the universe and said: Let particles with the same charges repel one another and particles with different charges attract one another which today is a fundamental law in nature. The forces between opposite charges became attraction and the result was that different charges was attracted to each other and made each other neutral (and disappeared?). Today we call this force electrical force.
From this we can see that one type of force in the universe is not enough to make a stable universe. The creator had created two sorts of particles and as we will see, he also needed two sorts of forces. The creator then touched all the positive charges in the universe and gave them some extra energy by making them rotate or spin. When charges move, we call it electric current and God said: Let currents with the same direction attract each other and let opposite currents repel each other. This is the fundament for the force we today call magnetic force.
Because all the charge in a particle is the same, either positive or negative, the charge itself will electrically repel other parts of the particle. As a result of this fact, the particle will look like a ball with all charge on the surface and noting inside. When that surface then starts to spin, bits of charge that is near to other bits of charge will spin in the same direction and therefore there will be a magnetic attraction. A result of that magnetic attraction is that the charges get smaller when they spin faster. In the figures in this document we will draw spinning charges smaller than charges that are not spinning. When a particle is spinning we have got a magnetic field around the particle with the north pole and the south pole on opposite sides as shown in the figure to the left. As long as there is no place where the spinning energy can be transformed, the spinning protons will keep spinning forever. We just assume that energy is preserved. But the spinning energy was not only ment for the protons alone and soon we will see what happens if a spinning proton and an electron are free to approach each other.
Because the protons have much more energy than the electrons, they have bigger mass and therefore it is easier for the electron to move than the proton. The equation of Einstein's: E=mc² also tells of a connection between mass and energy. A main difference between common "accepted" models and the EM-model is that the last one gives us a physical picture of why there are that sort of connection between mass and energy.
In our daily life we normally experience that big tings have more mass than small things and it may be a little confusing to hear that small particles have more mass (or energy) than the big one. A way of thinking is to remember that all particles have the same charge (absolute value) and that charge become more concentrated on a small surface than a big surface. The "density of electricity or magnetism" will then be higher near a small particle than a big particle and the forces will therefore also be bigger on a small particle. In general we can say that mass-properties is created near to the surface of the particle and it is a result of both electric and magnetic energy. In a distance from a charge we normally just measure the electric force because the magnetic properties have a shorter range. More about that later.
When an electron feels the electric field from a proton, it becomes attracted and starts moving toward the proton. Before we continue to reveal what will happen, it is important that we understands the electric force. How can a positive proton attract a negative electron before they are physically in touch with each other? Is it "a spirit of God" that does the pushing or is there something physical in between the electrons and protons that is the reason for the force.
Some people think that there is nothing physical in between the protons and the electrons in the universe(just vacuum). Nobody should try to force them to belive something against their will because they usually have much influence and power in scientific communities. Whether here we will just say that we see no logical reasons for not thinking that there is a physical electric field in between the charges and if we just call it the electric field which is the sum of electric fields from every charge in the universe or if we call it ether, is not important. The important thing is that those that denies that there exists an ether or physical electrical field and thinks that this is a scientific fact, should not bother reading more. There is something called blind faith, and one fruit of that sort of faith is that it makes it impossible to see what those who are not predisposed, feel to be obvious. The figure to the left shows an example of how we can draw an electric field around charges.
In scientific literature we can also read about magnetic forces and it is normal to explain those forces as a result of a magnetic field that surrounds the magnets. The figure to the left shows these fields are normally drawn. The main point here is just to stress that there must be something physical behind both the electric and magnetic forces which we experience around us every day. We need both the particles and some field around those particles to explain the nature of nature.
So back to the electron that is attracted by the electrical field from the proton. After the creator had initialised half of the particles in the universe with a rather heavy spin, we had got a quite new situation. What new effect could we then expect? If one of the charges in the universe is spinning, a logical conclusion should be that some of the electric field near to the charge should spin too. Then, if that is the case, the electron which is approaching the spinning proton, should feel that spin and itself start to spin. The direction of the electron spin should be the same as we see when two toothed wheels spin together. According to normal definitions they will spin in opposite direction. But because the proton and electron have opposite charge on their surface, they will get a magnetic spinn which have the same direction. That means that the north pole of the electron will be at the same side as the north pole of the proton. According to the common law in schoolbooks that says that same poles will repel, we can see that the magnetic force between the electron and the proton will be opposite of the electric force.
If we instead concentrate on those parts of the electron and the proton that are closest to each other and therefore will experience the strongest force, we see that they move in the same direction. If we look at the electric current in the same parts of the particles, we then conclude that the current will be in opposite directions because the proton and the electron have opposite charge. That also means a repelling force according to the fundamental law that says that opposite currents repel each other.
Magnetic force:None Some
Electrical force:Some More Much
Position the mouse different places on the figure and se what will happen to the electron at different distances form the proton.
This effect, where a particle which is not magnetic, becomes magnetic near an other magnet in a way that causes magnetic repel, is called diamagnetism. In some books we can also read that this seems to be a fundamental property in all matter. Some substances have the opposite effect and they are called either paramagnetic or ferromagnetic. These effects can be explained as a result of atoms that are locked to each other in smaller or bigger era (magnetic domains), but this effect will vanish for example when the temperature gets high and therefore it is common to consider this effect as a less fundamental effect.
Because the electrical field has a spherical symmetric form the electric force will vary as 1/d² where d is the distance between the charges. The magnetic field will be more like the field from a dipole and therefore the magnetic force will increase more like 1/d³. Note that the protons get smaller and the proton gets bigger because spin energy is transformed from the proton to the electron.
The magnetic force will work against the electrical force
The figure above shows what happens to the electron while it approaches the spinning electron. It is the electrical forces that pull them together, and as they get closer, more and more of the spinning energy is transformed to the electron. That makes a magnetic force between them that will work against the electrical attraction. Because the magnetic force will increase faster than the electrical force (as 1/d³ instead of 1/d²), the two forces will balance each other at a given distance and the electron will therefore stop before it reaches the proton.
A fundamental property in every construction is forces that balances each other. In a fence, for example there must be forces that prevent it from falling both inward and outward. In nature the Creator has created two forces that normally will work against each other and prevent everything from falling inward (disappear into nothing) or falling outward (explode into a thin homogenous matter). Until now we have seen an example where the magnetic force prevents from falling inward, but in nature this magnetic force is also busy with preventing things from expanding outward. An example of the latter is the nucleus in atoms that have many electrons in a very small region. The electrical forces that repel particles with same charge will be enormous, and the nucleus would therefore have exploded if not the magnetic forces had kept the protons together. More about this in other documents.
Before we end this first chapter in the introduction to the em-model, it is necessary to mention something about how big these particles are. But first we have to say something about the concept atom or element. Some people may call these for particles. Here we will first say that according to the em-model it is best to think of atoms as more or less stable structures of particles and therefore reserve the concept particles to just electrons and protons. The same also applies to molecule. The reason is that we normally think of a particle as something continuous with a clear border to the surroundings. That is not what an atom or a molecule looks like if we could see them. Originally, when people first started to use the concept atom, they defined it as something that could not be divided, but today we know that they can. The hydrogen atom is the only exception if we do not consider an atom with a lost electron (ion) to be a divided atom.
How do we then define a stable structure? Many atoms are not stable in the meaning that they are stable alone. One example is hydrogen. Therefore we find that atoms often seek together with another atom of the same sort and form what we call a molecule. Molecules may be defined as pairs of atoms and the main reason for the attraction is a single electron with a magnetic spin that will be attracted to another magnetic electron. These electrons are often called unpaired electrons. It is the same principle as we experience if we have many magnets with the same size. We will normally experience a strong force when they get together two and two. The result is then a sort of neutralized magnetic field and there is not much force left to attract a third magnet.
How big are the particles compared to the mean distance between atoms
Before we can go further and focus on how different atoms and molecules interact with each other, it is important to know something about how big the particles and structures really are. How is it then possible to measure their size when we can not see the atoms or molecules? A main fundament behind these measurements is the fact that electric charge is a basic property in particles and the electric force is also so strong that it is possible to measure the difference when only one particle moves in or out. We will not describe how that has been done, but there are good reasons for trusting the tables that tell us how many particles there are in different quantities of elements. From these quantities we can then calculate a mean distance between different particles, atoms or molecules. From these sorts of calculations we then get the value 10-10m which can be regarded as a mean distance between neighbouring atoms in solids or liquids. The question here is then how big electrons and protons are compared to that distance.
figure illustrate the mean distance between atoms/molecules in solids
and liquids to the left and gases to the right. When for example
water evaporate to gas the mean distance to the nearest molecule
increase by a factor of 10. Note that red spheres is a graphical
mark the presence of something, but the real atoms/molecules don't
look like spheres, and they are probably not that big.
How can we then compare the size of atomic structures. An important concept is the mean distance and then relating it to the distance between the center of two particles, atoms or molecules. We know for example that solids and liquids are around 1000 times as dense as gases in normal atmospheric pressure and that means that the mean distance between them will increase by a factor of 10 when liquids evaporates to gas. The size of the structure to the left compared to our normal world may be illustrated by saying that the wavelength of light which marks a limit for how small things we can see with normal microscopes is a factor 1000 bigger than the distance between the gas molecules to the right (10-9m·1000=10-6m). On the other hand, the size of the nucleus of atoms according to common atom models will be a factor of 10 000 smaller than the distance between atoms in solids (10-10m/10000=10-14m). According to the EM-model the size of protons and electrons are from about 10-14m and upward.
There still has to be done some research before more accurate values can be presented, but the important thing here is to realize that the protons are not so concentrated in the em-model as according to common atomic models. If we define the nucleus to be the part of the atom which contains protons, it man have a diameter about 10-11m and it will then also contain most of the electrons according to this new model.
Impossible to draw particles and structure with same scale
The big differences in size that is beeing illustrated here mean that it is impossible to draw a detailed picture of atoms or molecules in the same scale. But that does not mean that we should avoid drawing models of atoms or molecules. It is often easier to learn about structure from drawings than from texts and therefore we make illustrations of the atomic structures. But normally the scale has to be wrong. If we for example assume that the protons in the figure have a diameter of 1 cm which means a scaling from 10-14m to 10-2m and then want to draw the nearest molecule in a gas in the same scale, we have to put it a kilometer away. The important ting to remember here is that in every drawing of atomic structures, the scale will be wrong on purpose, but figures with wrong scaling may illustrate the physical principles in a good enough way, and that is the most important thing here. The alternative is not to make illustrations at all. Most people need some figures to understand what is behind text and formula, and especially in a situation where the goal is to understand atoms which we can not see directly with our eyes.
In most cosmological models, among them the popular "Big Bang Model", we can read that the universe at first was filled with hydrogen, which means protons and electrons. This is a logical conclusion because hydrogen is a fundamental atom/element which theoretically may be used to make the rest of the atoms or elements in the universe.
When we put a proton and an electron close to each other, they will attract each other and form what we call a hydrogen atom which means that they make a pair and we have to use force to divide them. We normally do not find hydrogen atoms in the nature and the reason is that they have a so called unpaired electron. The magnetic field from a single electron will normally reach out to a neighbouring hydrogen atom (or another atom) and the result will be magnetic attraction. They then form a hydrogen molecule that is a more stable structure. In our world, hydrogen is a gas, and we will write more on that in the next document. Here we will just conclude that it is probable that the universe once has been filled with only Hydrogen gas.
Some people may have discovered that the first book in the Bible has been an inspiration for structuring this presentation of atoms and matter. No man can say for sure how all matter came into being, but the creation story in the Bible has a good pedagogical structure for presenting this complicated subject. It also includes the basic features that we find in scientific cosmological models. In general there are no objective scientific reasons for avoiding things that are written in religious books. The story we have told here, based on the story in the Bible, may be right or wrong, but since no man was present when the universe was created, nobody should refuse the story because of where it has its basic inspiration.
The first part of the first day of creation completed!
As a closing of this first chapter about the fundamental particles in the universe, we will do as also Isaac Newton once did and translate the first words in the Bible in to a scientific context. The original text:"In the beginning, God Created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form" may be rewritten as: "In the beginning, God created the tree dimensional room and the fundamental particles that we find in matter. At first the matter ( in its basic form as hydrogen), filled the universe in a uniform way as a gas without structure."